Due to the ever increasing share of renewable energy sources in the energy mix, large scale energy storage systems are considered essential to ensure security of supply in energy systems. Most renewables like wind and solar are intermittent by nature. Flexible, economic and efficient electrical energy storage systems are thus needed to shift large quantities of energy (MWh) from peak-production to peak-demand.
In recent years, Carnot Batteries have been introduced as a novel grid-scale electrical energy storage to address this challenge. The storage concept involves three steps. First, electrical energy is converted into heat using a heat pump or joule heater. Secondly, the heat is stored. Finally, a heat engine technology is used to covert the heat back to electricity when needed.
At the moment, it is unclear which services Carnot batteries could deliver to support the electrical grid of the future. A better understanding of the system dynamics and the interaction between the different subsystems is needed to answer this question.
This thesis aids in achieving sustainable development goal (SDG) 7: affordable and clean energy, by enabling the integration of renewable energy sources into the electrical grid and by waste heat recovery, diminishing the need for fossil fuels to provide low-temperature heat demand.
The goal of this master’s thesis is to develop a dynamic model of a Rankine-based Carnot battery. The model will be made using the TIL-library in Dymola. Previous work focused on the modelling of the heat pump and organic Rankine cycle. This thesis will built on this previous work and integrate these models with a storage model to assess the dynamics of the whole system.